Exercise 2 relative and absolute dating of geologic events

It defines clean animals essentially as ruminants, a suborder which includes about 69 recent genera, 192 recent species [Wilson & Reeder, 1993], and probably a comparable number of extinct genera and species. However, the ark was divided into separate rooms and decks (Gen. How was fresh air circulated throughout the structure? The ungulates alone would have produced tons of manure a day. Several people have proposed answers to these questions, but none which consider all the implications of their models. Why is there no evidence of a flood in ice core series? [Poldervaart, 1955] A deposition rate ten times as high for 5000 years before the Flood would still only account for less than 0.02% of limestone deposits. Chalk is largely made up of the bodies of plankton 700 to 1000 angstroms in diameter [Bignot, 1985]. "Creationism: Please Don't Call It Science" Creation/Evolution, 13:1 (Summer 1993), 45-49. Geology of the Himalayas, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., New York. A., 1990, Early Pennsylvanian swamp forests in the Mary Lee coal zone, Warrior Basin, Alabama. That is a small percentage of the total number of species, but ruminants are among the largest mammals, so their bulk is significant. 8-9) gets around the problem by citing Jewish tradition which gives only 13 domestic genera as clean. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., Philadelphia PA. The waste on the lowest deck at least (and possibly the middle deck) could not simply be pushed overboard, since the deck was below the water line; the waste would have to be carried up a deck or two. A few of the commonly cited models are addressed below. This model, proposed by Whitcomb & Morris and others, proposes that much of the Flood water was suspended overhead until the 40 days of rain which caused the Flood. Ice cores from Greenland have been dated back more than 40,000 years by counting annual layers. Such a mass of water as the Flood would have provided sufficient buoyancy to float the polar caps off their beds and break them up. In fact, the Greenland ice cap would not regrow under modern (last 10 ky) climatic conditions. Objects this small settle at a rate of .0000154 mm/sec. These are where one set of layers of sediments have been extensively modified (e.g., tilted) and eroded before a second set of layers were deposited on top.

(The summit of Everest is composed of deep-marine limestone, with fossils of ocean-bottom dwelling crinoids [Gansser, 1964].) If these were formed during the Flood, how did they reach their present height, and when were the valleys between them eroded away?

They thus seem to require at least two periods of deposition (more, where there is more than one unconformity) with long periods of time in between to account for the deformation, erosion, and weathering observed. Many very tall mountains are composed of sedimentary rocks.

Therefore all extinct land animals had representatives aboard the ark. Other animals are strict carnivores, and some of those specialize on certain kinds of foods, such as small mammals, insects, fish, or aquatic invertebrates. Many snakes, for example, will eat only live foods (or at least warm and moving). Most spiders locate their prey by the vibrations it produces. As shown in section 5, all the mechanisms proposed for causing the Flood already provide more than enough energy to vaporize it as well.

It is also worth pointing out that the number of extinct species is undoubtedly greater than the number of known extinct species. How did Noah determine and provide for all those special diets? [Foelix, 1996] Most herbivorous insects require fresh food. Food spoilage is a major concern on long voyages; it was especially thus before the inventions of canning and refrigeration. These additional factors only make the heat problem worse. Much limestone is made of the skeletons of zillions of microscopic sea animals. Were all those animals alive when the Flood started?

Some creationists provided even more detailed models, and these are also addressed (see especially sections 5 and 7). Second, the whole story can be dismissed as a series of supernatural miracles. However, one must wonder about a God who reportedly does one thing and then arranges every bit of evidence to make it look like something else happened. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 103 (1-2): 67-71. If we grant 400 days for this to settle, and ignore possible compaction since the Flood, we still have 15 meters of sediment settling per day. Extraterrestrial impact events: the record in the rocks and the stratigraphic record.

A literal interpretation of the Flood story in Genesis, however, does imply certain physical consequences which can be tested against what we actually observe, and the implications of such an interpretation are investigated below. Creationists argue against the local flood model because it doesn't fit their own literalist preconceptions, but I know of no physical evidence contrary to such a model. The continental tree-ring record - absolute chronology, C-14 calibration and climatic-change at 11 KA. One formation in New Jersey is six kilometers thick.

Here's how the points discussed above affect his analysis. Sedimentary mountains such as the Sierras and Andes rose after the Flood by isostatic rebound. Proceedings of the second international conference on creationism, vol. The stretched pebble conglomerate in Death Valley National Monument (Wildrose Canyon Rd., 15 mi. 190), for example, contains streambed pebbles metamorphosed to quartzite and stretched to 3 or more times their original length.

Table 1 shows Woodmorappe's analysis and some additional calculations. Page numbers refer to Woodmorappe, 1996, from which the figures in the row are taken. [Baumgardner, 1990a; Austin et al., 1994] New ocean basins. Catastrophic plate tectonics: a global flood model of earth history. In the beginning: compelling evidence for creation and the Flood. Plastically deformed stone is also common around salt diapirs [Jackson et al, 1990]. Standard theory is that they were laid down before Earth's atmosphere contained much oxygen.

Additional clean animal figures assume they are taken aboard by sevens, not seven pairs, and also assume juvenile animals. (Brown proposes that the cataclysms were caused by the crust sliding around on a cushion of water; Whitcomb & Morris don't give a cause.) Austin, Steven A., John R. How does a flood explain the accuracy of "coral clocks"? Geological Highway Map of Nova Scotia, 2nd edition.

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