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Spencer was one of the pioneers of the discipline of sociology.

This is is a survey of the topic and one his innovations was the application of the idea of natural selection to the survival of groups and institutional arrangements. This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc.

Minds left ignorant of physical causation, are unlikely to appreciate clearly, if at all, that causation so much more subtle and complex, which runs through the actions of incorporated men.

In almost every house, servants and those who employ them, alike believe that a poker leaned up in front of the bars, or across them, makes the fire burn; and you will be told, very positively, that experience proves the efficacy of the device—the experience being that the poker has been repeatedly so placed and the fire has repeatedly burned; and no comparisons having been made with cases in which the poker was absent, and all other conditions as before.

Neither criticism nor explanation appreciably modifies these beliefs.

When there is again an opening for them they are expressed with undiminished confidence.

Minds in which the conceptions of social actions are thus rudimentary, are also minds ready to harbour wild hopes of benefits to be achieved by administrative agencies.

In each such mind there seems to be the unexpressed postulate that the other day: apparently forgetting that within the preceding twelve months the power he invoked had lost two of its own vessels, and barely saved a third.

Not much, however, has been done in this way: the only additions of moment being contained in the Appendix.

One of these, pursuing in another direction the argument concerning academic discipline, will be found among the notes to Chapter IX.; and another, illustrative of the irrelation between intellectual culture and moral feeling, will be found in the notes to Chapter XV.

After thus committing myself, it occurred to me as desirable that, instead of writing the volume simply for the Beginning in May, 1872, this publication by instalments has, with two brief intervals, since continued, and will be completed on the Ist October next : the issue of this volume being delayed until after that date.

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